Dec 5, 2016

The 4 Actions for Accurate Proportions



One of the most valuable lessons I learned at art school was the 4 Actions for Accurate Proportions. With just 4 actions, you can draw absolutely anything under the sun… with the correct proportions! Yes, I'm being serious.

Before I get into the lesson, I want to thank those who answered my question "What is your biggest struggle with figure painting?" Your reply was a huge help to me as I'm writing this series of art lessons on painting the figure. I can't reply to every email, but be assured that I read your answer at least twice and am carefully considering it as a topic for a lesson on figure painting. And if you haven't answered that question yet, please feel free to do so by sending your answer to Contact@AdamClague.com.

OK, now for those 4 Actions for Accurate Proportions that will enable you to correctly draw absolutely anything (yes, even the human figure)…


  1. Compare distances
  2. Copy angles
  3. Check alignments
  4. Consider negative shapes

Now I'll demonstrate each one…

Note: In the following illustrations, I measure
the proportions of a painting. However, in real life,
I would measure the proportions of my subject first,
and then measure my painting to ensure the proportions
of my painting matched the proportions of my subject.
 

1. Compare Distances


A. Hold out your brush handle (or pencil, etc.) against your subject. Close 1 eye so you don't see double.
 


Choose any 2 points on your subject. Mark off the distance between these two points using the tip of your brush handle and the tip of your thumb. In example "A," I've marked off the distance between the top of the girl's hair and the bottom of her chin.

B. Now, see if this distance compares to any other distance in your subject. In example "B," I've discovered that the distance between the top of the girl's head and the bottom of her chin equals the distance between the bottom of her chin and the bottom of the bowl.
 

 
Why this is awesome
Now that I've found where the bottom of the bowl goes,
I will be much less likely to make her arms too long or
too short as I draw them between the head and the bowl.
Continuously comparing distances like this will
help you achieve correct proportions, no matter
your subject's shape or size.


2. Copy Angles


Compare a horizontal or vertical brush handle to an angle in your subject to determine how much the angle is tilted. In this example, a horizontal brush handle makes it much easier to tell how much the girl's eyes are tilted.
 




3. Check Alignments


Use your brush handle like a plumb line to find 2 points that align to each other. In this example, I've discovered that the corner of the girl's mouth (A) is directly below the edge of her eye socket (B). Finding this unexpected alignment greatly helped me to draw the tilt of her head correctly!
 



4. Consider Negative Shapes


Let's say I've been drawing and re-drawing the arm, and it still doesn't look right. But then, I shift my focus and look at the negative shape–that triangular shape of air between the crook of her arm and her side. I focus on drawing that shape correctly, and suddenly—viola! Her arm looks accurate too. Often, correctly drawing a negative shape will automatically improve a positive shape.
 

Now, I know I said there are just 4 Actions for Accurate  Proportions, but there's kind of 1 more–the gesture line. I'll talk about that next time in "How to Keep Your Figures From Looking Stiff."

Did you find this lesson valuable? You can have lessons like this one delivered directly to your inbox when you sign up for our Email Newsletter below (Be sure to check "Free art lessons").

Until next time,
Adam

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Nov 23, 2016

My Simple Method For Mixing Any Skin Color


Hi there,

Do you find it difficult to mix good skin colors?

Well, I mentioned in the last lesson that mixing good skin colors does not depend on memorizing infinite color recipes (See
"A Better Approach To Mixing Realistic Skin Colors").

Also, remember that before you attempt to mix the color of a shape in front of you, you must first consider that shape's value and temperature (For value, see "Making Your Flat Portraits Look 3-D" and for temperature, see "Avoiding Muddy & Chalky Skin Tones")

But this lesson is about color. So without further ado, here is My Simple Method for Mixing Any Skin Color…

Step 1: Simplify

Flesh can contain hints of every color of the rainbow! When I'm mixing skin colors, I often find myself dipping into every color on my palette.

This is why I find it best to keep things simple in the beginning. When I start mixing skin colors, I think of each color on my palette as belonging to 1 of 3 categories:
  1. Reds
  2. Yellows
  3. "Nudge Colors" (I'll define this in a sec)
I find that simplifying my colors like this is an efficient approach to painting any skin color under almost any condition…

Of course, there are
always exceptions
Let's say you're feeling adventurous, and you light your model
with a bright blue LED light. Your model's skin tones may just
appear blue, without much influence of red or yellow. But given
that your model is under natural light or under an artificial
 light of typical color, you are probably safe to assume
your model's skin color will contain some balance of
red, yellow, and a nudge color.



Step 2: Mix Up Big Piles of
Average Colors

Now, by "average" colors, I mean colors that generally represent the colors in the subject as simply as possible. I know you can see dozens of colors in your subject. But in the beginning, keep things simple and don't try to match every color you see right away. You can mix more specific colors later with those "nudge colors" I'll talk about.
At the start, I mix up just 2 big piles of average color–1 average color for the lit side of the head and 1 average color for the shadowed side (above, you can see these two colors applied in broad, blocky shapes).


Step 3: Nudge as Needed

First of all, just what is a "nudge color" anyway?

Well, mixing just red and yellow together can produce some pretty intense oranges that may not look natural as flesh colors. For this reason, it's usually necessary to "nudge" your mixture toward one color or another by mixing in other color(s)–"nudge colors."

Below are a 2 examples of average color mixtures I often start out with. In both cases, white is used as a nudge color. The white both lightens and cools the original orange color.

Example 1: Lemon, permanent alizarin crimson & white.


Example 2: Yellow ochre, permanent red medium & white.


Now, although I often start with the above mixtures, I certainly also mix in various other nudge colors as necessary. Sometimes your subject will dictate a nudge toward green in places. Or blue. Or violet. In fact, Any other color on your palette is a candidate for a nudge color.


So, How Do I Know Which
Reds, Yellows and Nudge Colors to Use?


Excellent question. My best answer is let your subject be your guide. Choose colors that are appropriate for the values, temperatures and colors in the subject.
In the end, observe your subject with care and faithfully paint the colors you see before you. Formulas only help you know what to look for and prepare you for what you might find–nothing more. Much more important than any formula is the process of training your eye to observe and paint faithfully.

I hope you've enjoyed these lessons on painting the portrait! Starting next week, I'll delve into the exciting realm of Figure Painting.
I have a question for you, and your answer will help me write the upcoming lessons:
What is your biggest struggle with figure painting?
Just email me your answer at Contact@AdamClague.com. Thanks, I really appreciate your help!

Did you find this lesson valuable? You can have lessons like this one delivered directly to your inbox when you sign up for our Email Newsletter below (Be sure to check "Free art lessons").

Until next time,
Adam

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Nov 4, 2016

A Better Approach to Mixing Realistic Skin Colors


Hi there,

If you were to ask me to recommend one instructional resource on painting, it would probably be the book Alla Prima: Everything I Know About Painting by Richard Schmid.

However, when I first flipped through its pages as a newbie painter, I admit my expectations were met with some disappointment.

At the time, I had been laboring over one of my very first commissions—a double portrait of two young children. I had hoped Mr. Schmid would provide color-mixing recipes for everything under the sun, including what I needed–color recipes for Caucasian skin tones illuminated by flash photography and other vague indoor lighting.

To my dismay, I could find no such recipes.

Of course, my disappointment had nothing to do with any fault in Mr. Schmid's book, but rather with my own misunderstandings of color.

What I didn't understand was this: For us painters, color mixing has little to do with recipes, and much more to do with our response to the subject.

Now, it's true that your artistic interpretation can also influence what colors end up on your canvas. But I like to let my subjects be my primary blueprint. Therefore, for the most part, I interpret the colors before me based on how they truly appear. This type of faithful response to your subject can (with practice) help you achieve color that is more realistic than any color recipe.

Now, responding faithfully to the colors before you is made easier when you understand why the colors in your subject are there…


3 Factors that
Affect Color


1. The light on the subject
The skin colors of a model under warm sunlight (as in the first image below) will appear dramatically different from the skin colors of the same model under cool window light (as in the second image below). These ladies are sisters, but they have a similar complexion.


2. The local color of the subject
"Local color" is the named color of a subject—for example, a blue shirt, a red apple, etc. When mixing skin color, the inherent qualities of the subject's flesh must be considered. We are blessed with beautiful diversity–some skin tones are lighter, some are darker, some lean more toward red or yellow or olive.

3. The reflection of surrounding objects
In the example below, notice how the model's bright green shirt reflects into his face.



As you can imagine, these 3 factors provide practically infinite color possibilities. It would be an impossible task to memorize a color recipe for every potential situation! Fortunately, we don't have to…

Next week, I'll share My Simple Method for Mixing Any Skin Color.

See you then!
—Adam


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Oct 24, 2016

Avoiding Muddy & Chalky Skin Tones


It's happened to all of us who have ever attempted to paint a portrait…

You've been painting that cherub of a child. You've been carefully trying to match the colors of that perfect, unblemished skin. You think you've nailed those rosy cheeks, that fair flesh, that sandy blonde hair.

But then you stand back from your work and… wow. Those cheeks are definitely rosy… like the red soil of Arizona. That skin is exactly as fair as chalk dust. And that hair is sandy, alright. Just like… well, sand.


If only you had a chart of "skin-tone recipes" written by some Betty Crocker of the art world that would tell you exactly how to whip up big batches of "Satin Skin" and "Ethereal Epidermis" instead of the "mud," "dirt" and "chalk" currently on your palette.

Fortunately, the cure for "muddy" or "chalky" color is not an unobtainable fantasy. In his book Alla Prima: Everything I Know About Painting, master artist Richard Schmid sheds light on this topic…

"'Muddy color'… is simply a color
that is inappropriate in temperature
"
—Richard Schmid

"Muddy" and "chalky" color is not so much a color issue as it is a temperature issue. So let's talk temperature...

Temperature Basics


The first thing to understand about temperature is that there is no such thing as "warm" and "cool." There is only "warm-er" and "cool-er." It's relative–a color is only cool-er or warm-er compared to another color.

Therefore, a "muddy" or "chalky" skin-tone is a color that is either too cool or too warm compared to the surrounding colors.

 
Side-Note: A color might also look "muddy" or "chalky"
if it's the wrong value. For example, a shape that's too dark on
a portrait will look like just that–a dark smudge on the face.
But given the value is correct, the reason a color looks "muddy"
or "chalky" is that it's either too warm or too cool in comparison
to the surrounding colors.

But of course, this information is useless unless you can make your muddy colors "UN-too-warm" and "UN-too-cool…"  


2 Ways You Can Make A
Color Warmer Or Cooler


1: By Moving Around the
Color Wheel Like a Clock

 

First, however, here are 2 important things to know: 1) the red-orange-yellow side of the color wheel is considered "warmer" than the green-blue-violet side, which is considered "cooler." 2) Most consider either bright yellow or yellow-orange the very warmest color. Blue is considered the coolest color (However, there's an exception that I'll mention in a bit…)

Now, imagine you're traveling around this color wheel like the hand of a clock. The closer you move toward the cooler side, the cooler the color will become. The closer you move toward to the warmer side, the warmer the color will become.


2 Examples:
  1. Let's say you're standing on that very warmest color–a bright yellow-orange. You take one step clockwise toward the green. Now, you're standing on a yellow that's tinted with a hint of green. This yellow-green is cooler than the yellow-orange because you've moved closer to the cooler side of the color wheel.
     
  2. This time, start out on violet. Take one step counter-clockwise toward the blue. Now, you're standing on blue-violet, which is cooler than violet because it's closer to blue and because you're moved further away from the warmer side of the color wheel.
The 2nd way you can make a color warmer or cooler is…

2. By Moving Along Imaginary
Spokes of the Color Wheel
 

Earlier, I said blue is considered the coolest color, but I mentioned there's an exception…

It's true, blue is the coolest color of the rainbow.

However, for the painter, there is one other color so icy, it gives blue frostbite… pure white.

In this particular color wheel, you'll notice there is a narrow ring that contains the main colors in their most saturated forms (1)

The farther you travel away from this ring toward the center of the circle, the more white is added (2).
Adding white will cool any other color… even blue!

Whew, this has been a ton of info!
Just 1 last thing…

…I'd like to share a few "quick tips" to help apply all of this information.

Quick Tips

  • If your shadows look "chalky," you likely have too much white in your mixture.
  • Sometimes you need to move around the color wheel like a clock. Sometimes you need to move across it like a spoke. Often, you need to do both–move diagonally to make a shift in both intensity and color.
  • Red is cooler than yellow.
  • If a color looks muddy, check its value first, before changing its temperature.
  • Usually, it's only a subtle shift that's required to fix a bad temperature relationship.
  • If you are illustrating a child playing in a mud puddle… by all means, use muddy color.

If you're longing for a "skin-tone recipe book" like the one I mentioned earlier, I can't help. But next week, I'll share the next best thing (A Better Approach to Mixing Realistic Skin Colors).

Until then,
Adam
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Oct 13, 2016

Making Your Flat Portraits Look 3-D (Part II)

Last week, I left my poor model with very graphic, hard-edged shapes on her face! Today, I'll talk about how to soften the edges between those shapes.

In the previous lesson, I shared how to accurately paint the lit and shadowed regions of the model's face, as well as the mid-tones in-between. These 3 regions of light, dark, and mid-tone can be seen in this first image.

(Note:
If you haven't read the previous lesson yet, I recommend you read it first: Making Your Flat Portraits Look 3-D).

The image below shows my next stage… the hair, scarf, and shirt are painted with just 2 values* each–1 value for the lit side, 1 value for the shadowed side.
* "Value" describes how light or dark a color is



Now, Let's Address All
Those Hard-Edged Shapes


Even at the current stage, things are beginning to look 3-D. However, value alone cannot completely describe form. To do this, Value needs his trusty co-worker Edge.

"Edge" describes the quality of the boundary between two adjacent shapes.

Together, value and edge create the illusion of form.

 
TIP: Don't be tempted to grab your softest brush and
obliterate all those unseemly hard edges too quickly.
Edges have a delicate hierarchy that must be observed carefully.
There are razor-sharp edges, there are softer edges,
and there is every other type of edge in-between.

All these various types of edges can be difficult to see unless you…
 

Know What to Look For


Generally speaking…
  • Abrupt plane changes have firmer edges
    (For example, the bridge of the nose)
     
  • Gradual plane changes have softer edges
    (Like the curve of a cheek)
     
  • Textured masses (like hair or a fuzzy sweater)
    have softer edges than skin and bone

Now let's get to the fun part… painting!


Two Trusty Guides To
Traverse Edgy Terrain

 
  1.  Identify the very sharpest edge in
    your subject and paint it first

    Painting the very sharpest edge first establishes a
    standard against which you can compare all other edges.

    (In my subject, the sharpest edge happens to be
    the edge between the collar and chest.)
     
  2. Before painting each edge, ask yourself,
    "How
    much softer or sharper is this edge
    than one I've already painted?"
 

Two Ways to Soften an Edge

 

Of course, there are many ways to soften an edge, but here are the 2 main methods…
  1. Drag one shape into another with a clean, dry brush.
    I softened her hair by dragging its shape into the background and the background into the hair.
     
  2. Paint a transitional value along an edge you wish to soften.
    Look at the narrow, grayish-violet shape along the cheek between the lit and shadowed regions. The value of this shape falls in-between the lit and shadowed regions, too.

    Even though I chose not to use additional strokes to soften this shape, our eye automatically "blends" the shape into the adjacent shapes, especially when viewed at a distance.

Next week, I'll share How to Avoid Chalky Or Muddy Skin-Tones.

Happy painting, everyone!
—Adam

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Oct 5, 2016

Making Your Flat Portraits Look 3-D

*|MC:SUBJECT|*
Last week, I gave 3 Steps to Starting a Successful Portrait. If you haven't read it yet, I recommend you read it before reading this lesson.

I had an embarrassing moment a few years back.

I had the opportunity to paint for a week with a master artist I really admire. The first day, we painted a young girl outside. She had beautiful sunlight rimming the back of her golden hair and reflecting into her face. The lighting was anything but "flat."

And yet… I managed to make her head look as flat as the plains of Kansas (we live next door in Missouri. I would know).

When the artist saw my problem, he very kindly suggested, "Adam, why don't you paint the darkest dark and lightest light first?"

I couldn't believe my mistake. If there had been one mantra repeated over and over at art school, it was "paint the darkest dark and lightest light first." I had known better. But that didn't change the fact that the artist was absolutely right… I had managed to neglect this important step. And as a result, I had painted the shadows and lights too similarly, and my painting looked flat.

Do you struggle with portraits that look flat? If so, you are not alone–painting the shadows and lights too similarly is one of the most common difficulties.

The first step on the road to making your flat paintings look 3-dimensional is to paint the darkest dark and lightest light very early on.

Step 1:
(Yes, I'll Say it Again)
Painting the Darkest Dark
And the Lightest Light


In the last lesson, I left off with a drawing that looked very similar to this one. But this image also shows the next step. I've painted two very dark shapes under the hair and scarf, and a very light shape on the cheekbone.

These simple shapes represent the very darkest and the very lightest shapes in my subject.

TIP: To establish the widest range of darks and lights in your painting, make the very lightest shape as close to pure white as possible. Likewise, make the darkest shape as dark as possible.

Step 2: Creating the Illusion of Light…
With Just 2 Shapes


It is usually a good practice to illuminate your subject in a way that gives a definite lit side and shadowed side.

First Shape: First, look at the shadowed side of your model's head. Envision this shadowed region as one general shape. Then, ask yourself this very important question…

How much lighter is this shape than the very darkest shape?

Paint the shape accordingly. Also, paint the shadowed side of the head as one general shape, and with one average color. You can add the variations inside this shape later. For now, just focus on laying a simple, strong foundation of light and shadow.

TIP: The shadowed side of the head is often much darker than you might expect—even if the model has fair skin.

Second Shape: Now, look at the lit side of your model's head. Envision this lit region as one general shape. Ask yourself, How much darker is this shape than the very lightest shape?

Paint the shape accordingly. Also, paint the lit side of the head as one general shape, and with one average color
.

Step 3: "Fleshing Out"
the Form With Mid-Tones
(Pun Intended)


The mid-tone region provides a beautiful segue between the lit and shadowed sides of the subject.

Ask yourself, How much lighter and darker are the mid-tones than the shapes I've already painted?

Answer this question in your mind, and then mix up one average color for the mid-tones. Paint the mid-tones as large, general shapes.

Even after Step 2, your portraits will start looking less flat and more 3-D. But painting the lit and shadowed sides accurately can be very difficult without first painting the very darkest and lightest shapes for comparison.

So far, my portrait above has very hard-edged shapes. I'll talk about how to soften these edges next week in Making Your Flat Portraits Look 3-D (Part II).

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